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|Title: ||The Effects of Birth Weight and Gender on Neonatal Mortality in North Central Nigeria|
|Authors: ||Onwuanaku, Caroline A.|
Okolo, Seline N.
Ige, Kemi O.
Okpe, Sylvanus E.
Toma, Bose O.
|Keywords: ||Gestational age.|
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||BioMed Central|
|Series/Report no.: ||4;562|
|Abstract: ||Background: Worldwide 15.5% of neonates are born with low birth weight, 95.6% of them in the developing
countries. Prematurity accounts for 10% of neonatal mortality globally. The purpose was to evaluate the effects of
birth weight and gender on neonatal outcome.
Findings: The data of 278 neonates managed in the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) of Jos University Teaching
Hospital (JUTH) over a 2 year period from July 2006 to June 2008 were analyzed.
One hundred and fifty nine (57.2%) were males and 119(42.8%) females. There were 87(31.3%) preterm and 191
(68.7%) term babies. Twelve of the babies died. Seven (2.52%) and 5 (1.80%) being males and females respectively.
The neonatal mortality rate by gender was not significant (p > 0.05). The neonatal mortality was 25.2 deaths per
1000 live births for boys and 18.0 for girls. The mean birth weights of the preterm and term babies were 1.88 ±
0.47 kg and 3.02 ± 0.50 kg respectively, with a mean gestational age of 30.62 ± 3.65 weeks and 38.29 ± 0.99 weeks
Eighty seven (31.3%) of the babies were of low birth weight, 188(67.6%) were of normal birth weight and 3(1.1%)
high birth weight. Of the low birth weight babies, 6(2.2%) were term small for gestational age. Six (2.2%) of the
preterm infants had normal birth weight.
Eleven of the babies that died were preterm low birth weight. The overall mortality rate was 4.32%. The birth
weight specific mortality rate was 126 per 1000 for the preterm low birth weight and 5 per 1000 for the term
babies. Birth weight unlike gender is a significant predictor of mortality, mortality being higher in neonates of <2.5
kg (OR = 0.04; 95% Cl 0.005-0.310, p = 0.002) (p = 0.453). Seven (58.3%) and 4(33.3%) of the pre-terms that died
were appropriate and large for gestational age respectively. Gestational age is not a significant predictor of
neonatal mortality (p = 0.595). Babies delivered at less than 37 weeks of gestation recorded a higher rate of
mortality than those of 37 weeks and above (p = 0.000).
The subjects showed one or more major clinical indications for admission. The major clinical indications for the
preterm and term babies were respectively as follows: neonatal sepsis 63(22.7%) and 124(44.6%); neonatal jaundice
32(11.1%) and 71(24.7%); malaria 9(3.1%) and 13(4.5%); birth asphyxia 3(1.0%) and 7(2.4%). Neonatal sepsis was a
common denominator among the babies that died.
Conclusion: Birth weight unlike gender is a significant predictor of neonatal outcome.|
|Appears in Collections:||Paediatrics|
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